Human remains are a unique type of forensic evidence. The autopsy of the remains was conducted to determine the cause and manner of death whatever violent, unusual or unexpected. A forensic pathologist will examine human remains (post-mortem) and consider the findings of death scene. The medical history of the person may also be reviewed to determine whether the death was natural, accidental or criminal. During the examination, the pathologist can recover critical evidence, like a bullet, which can help determine the cause and manner of death. Moreover, the pathologist can identify a pattern of injury that can be adapted to a weapon or could determine the entry and exit wounds deaths with firearms and other projectiles.
Better equip forensic pathologists, more research is needed into the use of virtual autopsy as an alternative to traditional post-mortem examinations. NIJ is focusing its research and development funds in the use of virtual forensic autopsy as a tool in the implementation of a thorough post-mortem examination - if used in conjunction with standard gross autopsy or as a standalone tool. More research is also needed to develop better methods to estimate the time since death and determine the exact cause and manner of death, especially in children and the elderly.
BACKGROUND Forensic Pathologists
Each year there is a small part of medical training and be certified in the specialty area of forensic patholist vs tens of thousands in other fields of medicine. Not enough board-certified forensic pathologists to meet national needs. The National Association of Forensic Pathology Forensic Training Committee conducted a survey of its members to determine the factors that influenced them to choose forensic pathology as a career, and offer suggestions for possible recruitment methods in the future.
Methods of Forensic Pathologists
Two of the authors developed a survey form of 13 questions that included questions designed to determine the demographics of the respondents, the level of education at which the interest arose, the factors influencing the choice of forensic pathology, the exposure to the field of forensic pathology in medical school and residency, opinions on the best education for recruitment selection, and reactions to the selection of the faculty of forensic medicine as a career option. Suggestions and comments were also solicited. The survey was emailed to 552 members the name of the doctor who have e-mail addresses on file with the Ministry of Interior NAME.
Results Forensic Pathologists
More than 6,000 surveys were returned with a 30% response rate. Most of the respondents were full-time, board-certified forensic pathologists who had been practicing for an average of 18 years. The most influential factors in the development of interest were exposure to forensic pathology residency training and the influence of a teacher or mentor. Medical school education level was favored to guide recruitment. Less than half had a forensic pathologist at autopsy instructor anatomic pathology residency. The number of responders who were encouraged by the faculty to pursue forensic pathology was approximately the same as the number who were either discouraged or not perceived positive or negative reinforcement concrete. The typical scenario for exposure during forensic pathology anatomical pathology residency was a rotation of 4 weeks in a place outside the premises of the medical school or hospital, with a mentor who had a deputy, assistant, associate or clinical faculty appointment.
Conclusions of Forensic Pathologists
If the past predicts the future, it will be important to ensure that residents Forensic pathologist has a positive and planned exposure to forensic pathology and forensic pathologist mentors are available for training programs. There is a good variety of other methods that can be used for recruitment, including a greater emphasis on medical students, a more academic and membership, emphasizing the scientific nature of the work, the integration of forensic pathology more the curriculum of medical school continuously improving autopsy pathology residency experience, and avoid possible diversions that can be caused by exposure to sensationalist or unpleasant cases that are not representative of the daily work routine. Improved pay and esteem by fellow building were also cited as critical factors, such as hiring more doctors in general pathology. The Commission intends to develop a plan for recruitment and retention in the field of forensic pathology. Based on the survey data, this will require a conjoined effort with the Association of American Medical Colleges, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, President of the Association of Pathology and others to enable a planned approach and multifaceted recruitment and retention of pathologists forensice.
Forensic Science Technicians
Forensic science technicians help investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Most technicians specialize in crime scene or csi laboratory analysis.
Crime scene researchers may work long hours in poor conditions. Most technical forensic science lab work full time during normal business hours.
Becoming a Forensic Science Technician
Educational requirements for researchers - crime scene vary by employer. Technical forensic scientists working in laboratories need a bachelor's degree.
The median annual salary for forensic science technicians was over $51,000 in a recent survey.
Jobs of forensic science technicians is expected to grow 19 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as average for all occupations. Competition for jobs will be strong because of the substantial interest in forensic science.
What Forensic Science Technicians Do
Crime scene investigators collect crime scene evidence.
Forensic science technicians help investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Most CSI technicians specialize in crime scene or laboratory analysis.
Duties - crime scene the forensic science technicians, also known as crime scene investigators generally the following:
- Walk through the scene to determine what and how evidence should be gathered
- Photographs of the crime scene and evidence
- Make sketches of the crime scene
- Written notes of his observations and conclusions, as the location and position of the test and found
- Collect all relevant physical evidence, including weapons, fingerprints and body fluids
- Catalog and preserve evidence before transferring it to a crime lab
Researchers at the crime scene can use tweezers, black lights and specialized kits to identify and gather evidence. In addition to processing the crime scene, but also may attend the autopsy.
Laboratories - forensic science technicians often do the following:
- Identify and classify crime scene evidence through scientific analysis
- Explore possible links between the suspects and criminal activities using the results of the chemical and physical analysis
- Consult with experts in related fields or specialized, such as toxicology, about the tests and their results
- Reconstruct crime scenes based on scientific discoveries
Forensic science technicians reconstruct the crime scene carefully studying the information gathered by investigators and conducting scientific tests on physical evidence. For example, laboratory technicians can view pictures of blood spatter patterns and ballistics tests on bullets found at the crime scene to determine the direction from which a shot was fired.
forensic science technicians working in laboratories using chemicals and laboratory equipment such as microscopes to analyze the evidence. They also use computer databases to examine fingerprints, DNA and other evidence from the crime scene to match the people and things that have already been identified. Forensic science technicians perform more lab specialize in a specific type of test analysis, such as DNA or ballistics.
All forensic science technicians prepare written reports detailing their findings and research methods. They should be able to explain their reports to lawyers, detectives and other officers to enforce the law. In addition, forensic science technicians may be called to testify in court about their findings and methods.
Forensic science technicians working in laboratories.
forensic science technicians performed about 13,000 jobs in a recent year. About 9 out of 10 forensic science technicians working in state and local government workplaces following:
- Police departments
- Crime laboratories
- The coroner / medical examiner offices
Researchers at the crime scene must travel to different parts of a city or region because the crimes can happen anywhere. Crime Scene Investigation can be very annoying and unpleasant because researchers see many disturbing places.
Researchers at the crime scene - staggered work day, evening or night shifts and may have to work overtime, and that should always be available to collect evidence. Technicians working in laboratories usually work standard working week, but may have to be on call after hours if needed for immediate work on the crime scene.
Becoming a forensic science technician
Forensic science technicians keep written notes of observations and conclusions.
Educational requirements for researchers from the crime scene vary by employer. The forensic science technicians need a college degree to work in forensic laboratories. Vast amounts of training in the workplace is required both for investigating the crime scene and those working in laboratories.
Many researchers - crime scene are sworn police officers and have met the academic requirements for admission to the police academy. Applicants for jobs nonuniform investigator crime scene larger agencies law enforcement must have a bachelor's degree in either forensic science or a natural science, but many rural agencies hire candidates with a diploma high school.
Technicians working in crime labs usually need a bachelor's degree in either forensic science or a natural science such as biology or chemistry. Students who specialize in forensic science should make sure your program includes extensive work course in mathematics, chemistry and biology. A list of schools that offer degrees in forensic science is available in American Academy of Forensic Sciences
Composure - The crime scene can be frightening, but the technicians have to maintain their professionalism.
Critical thinking skills - Forensic science technicians use their best judgment when matching physical evidence such as fingerprints and DNA of suspects.
Detail oriented - Forensic science technicians can not afford to make mistakes when collecting and analyzing evidence.
Problem solving skills - Forensic science technicians use scientific evidence and methods to help officials of law enforcement in solving crimes.
Speaking - Forensic science technicians often present their findings to the police and other workers of law enforcement. They may be called upon to provide expert testimony in a court of law.
Writing Skills - Forensic science technicians prepare written reports that must withstand legal scrutiny.
Forensic science technicians need extensive on the job before they are ready to work on cases independently.
Newly hired researchers - Crime scene serve as apprentices to more experienced researchers. During his apprenticeship, researchers learn the procedures and methods for the collection and documentation of evidence.
Technical specialties - Forensic science laboratory learning at work. The length of this training varies by specialty. Most DNA analysis training programs last 6-12 months, but training with firearms analysis can take up to three years. Technicians must pass an aptitude test before they can perform independent casework or testify in court.
Throughout their careers, forensic science technicians must stay abreast of advances in technology and science to improve the collection and analysis of evidence.
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